#EBOOK ⚣ Playing Indian (Yale Historical Publications Series) ⚟ eBook or E-pub free

Fascinating argument about the problematic relationship that White America has with American Indians This book makes an incredibly interesting argument about the mythic space that the American Indian was pushed to by White America The prevalence of American Indian imagery and associations in our modern society might lead someone to believe that there is a reverence to American Indian culture However, as Deloria argues it is of an attempt of severance of the actual Native Americans from their land and culture, and the attempt of White America to place themselves into that space Using both post colonial analysis and history Philip J Deloria expertly analyzes this unique phenomena. I wish I d read this before I wrote Race, Sacrifice, and Native Lands Quoting DH Lawrence No place exerts its full influence upon a newcomer until the old inhabitant is dead or absorbed and Deloria argues that white American culture has defined itself as much in opposition to redness as blackness has struggled between wanting to destroy and to assimilate Indians 4.Deloria traces the history of the ways whites have engaged in what I would call Indian cosplay for various purposes, from the Boston Tea Party to Boy Scout and other movements which had playing Indian as a central feature of what they did helped me understand some of my discomfort with Boy Scouts After WWII, there were groups of hobbyists who engaged Indian culture in various ways the object hobbyists who replicated old Indian artifacts and costumes as authentically as possible, but were generally uninterested in dancing and singing with native people, seeing Indians in classic antimodern terms as exterior figures Racially different and temporally separate, Indians were objects of desire, but only as they existed outside of American society and modernity itself 135 What Deloria calls people hobbyists, on the other hand, enjoyed the intercultural contact and boundary crossing they found at contemporary powwows Emphasizing cultural boundary blurring, the people hobbyists constructed interior, us versions of the Indian other unlike earlier groups, the people hobbyists had to reconcile their cultural imaginations with the real Indian people they wanted to see dancing next to them in the powwow circle 135 Object hobbyists sought authenticity in the past and physical objects people hobbyists sought authenticity through interaction with actual living Indians.At the same time, many people hobbyists retained a cultural openness to Indians while maintaining racist stances toward other groups They imagined that it was appropriate for Whites to imitate Indians but strange for others to do so, which was logical since Americans had a long history of imagining and claiming an Indianness that was about being indigenous, free, white, and male 146 At the same time, the high value whites placed on Indian culture may have helped Indians fortify their own identities in the face of federal pressure to urbanize As hobbyists fabricated Indianness in terms of authenticity, Indian people, in fact, became authentic 147 Hobbyists were simultaneously nonconformists and people who worked doubly hard to comply with two cultural codes 147.He describes the story of the Koshare scouts, who made costumes for the Zuni Shalako ceremony, which the Zunis protested After seeing the costumes, however, the Zunis instead decided the costumes were authentic and real, took them back to Zuni, and built a special kiva for them Thus the Koshares moved beyond the simple reproduction of Indian material culture or the memetic production of new intercultural forms the historian Jay Mechling argues that although the Boy Scouts of La Junta were were not Indians, they were also than simple, straightforward white boys After having their craft and the identity that accompanied it authenticated by the Zunis, the boys became something peculiarly new Koshare And they could have arrived at this odd status only through a process of meaning making that was collaborative and strikingly cross cultural 152 Playing Indian has been constantly reimagined and acted out when Americans desire to have their cake and eat it too Indians could be both civilized and indigenous They could critique modernity and yet reap its benefits 157.The words of Chief Seattle were written by a white screenwriter from Texas, as part of a television script on pollution produced by the Southern Baptist Convention in 1972 The speech encoded Indians as valedictory having gone away implanted them as part of the American landscape Like the vanishing Indian plays of Jacksonian America, Seattle s words erased contemporary social realities and the complicated, often violent history of Indian land loss Instead, all people were one, bound by a universal web of blood connections and their relations to the earth 167 Multiculturalism , placed in the context of a postmodernism that emphasized relativism and openness, it was easy to read cosmpolitan multiculturalism as a license for anyone to choose an ethnic identity Indian, for example regardless of family, history, or tribal recognition When non Indian New Age followers appropriated and altered a cosmopolitan understanding of Indianness, they laid bare a slow rebalancing away from the collective concerns with social justice that had emerged in the 1960s and toward the renewed focus on individual freedom that has characterized America since the 1980s 173.Examines phenomena of writers of texts of Native American wisdom Ed McGaa, clarissa Pinkola Estes, etc Readers of such texts then put the words into concrete forms, performing them through vision quest weekends and pipe ceremonies in National Forest hideaways, many of which carried the heady price tag that signified conspicuous bourgeois consumption The tendency of New Age devotees to find in Indianness personal solutions to the question of living the good life meant that Indian Others were imagined in almost exclusively positive terms communitarian, environmentally wise, spiritually insightful This happy multiculturalism blunted the edge of earlier calls for social change by focusing on pleasant cultural exchanges that erased the complex histories of Indians and others 174 Whereas Sun Bear and Medicine Woman Lynn Andrews inhabited a cultural world easily shared by Indians and non Indians, oppositional native people focused on social and political worlds, where the differences between the reservation, the urban ghetto, and the Beverly Hills Hotel, with its silky breezes and honeysuckle air, stood in stark relief When they tried to force non Indians to translate from the cosmopolitan language of open cultural meanings to the pluralist languages of power, struggle, and inequality 177. #EBOOK ⚤ Playing Indian (Yale Historical Publications Series) ⚺ The Boston Tea Party, The Order Of Red Men, Camp Fire Girls, Boy Scouts, Grateful Dead Concerts Are Just A Few Examples Of The American Tendency To Appropriate Indian Dress And Act Out Indian Roles This Provocative Book Explores How White Americans Have Used Their Ideas About Indians To Shape National Identity In Different Eras And How Indian People Have Reacted To These Imitations Of Their Native Dress, Language, And Ritual At The Boston Tea Party, Colonial Rebels Played Indian In Order To Claim An Aboriginal American Identity In The Nineteenth Century, Indian Fraternal Orders Allowed Men To Rethink The Idea Of Revolution, Consolidate National Power, And Write Nationalist Literary Epics By The Twentieth Century, Playing Indian Helped Nervous City Dwellers Deal With Modernist Concerns About Nature, Authenticity, Cold War Anxiety, And Various Forms Of Relativism Deloria Points Out, However, That Throughout American History The Creative Uses Of Indianness Have Been Interwoven With Conquest And Dispossession Of The Indians Indian Play Has Thus Been Fraught With Ambivalence For White Americans Who Idealized And Villainized The Indian, And For Indians Who Were Both Humiliated And Empowered By These Cultural ExercisesDeloria Suggests That Imagining Indians Has Helped Generations Of White Americans Define, Mask, And Evade Paradoxes Stemming From Simultaneous Construction And Destruction Of These Native Peoples In The Process, Americans Have Created Powerful Identities That Have Never Been Fully Secure 4.5 A well crafted account of how Americans have attempted to use Indianness to create a unique American identity, a process that as this book argues, is not yet finished, and potentially can t be Each chapter examines a different period of American history and examines the way playing Indian shifted to make sense of newly developed contradictions in American identity, always coming back to Indians as the dichotomy of interior often thought of as the noble savage vs exterior or the savage savage While most of the earlier periods are focused on Americans, the last few chapters, particularly after WWII, has an intriguing development of the white actors embracing Indians judgement in hopes of finding authenticity At the time of the Red Power movement, this is particularly important, as Deloria describes the cultural power Indians had, as opposed to say military power, that they could use to gain social and political power during the Cold War There are many things that can, and really should, be said about this impressive work, but I ll save those for the things I HAVE to write, rather than spending time on it here Just know it s worth a read if you re interested in how many Americans have used both actual Indians and the idea of them in their attempts to understand themselves, without ever really forming an identity that isn t as contradictory as when they started. This book is full of dense and rich information and analysis Its thought provoking and will tug at your cultural perceptions. It s very academic I appreciate all the citations and sources, but would have liked how to say this More stories More examples or details about specific people and what they do and how they feel about white people playing at being Indian Less of the large abstract ideas I think the author has a lot of personal experience with this topic, but he only mentions it briefly in two footnotes Let me know if anybody has suggestions for other books on this subject. Read for class, but I thought it could have been better written.Full review here I read this book after a few controversial incidents occurred regarding Native American culture The Victoria Secret fashion show head dress incident, the Paul Frank pow wow party, and The Gap s Manifest Destiny t shirt design I realized I had almost no understanding of the history of Indian culture in the Americas Particularly revolving around how Americans have used Indian culture to suit their needs and the history of the distortion of Native culture I read this book to try to remedy that And it did I really enjoyed it but it is a bit dry even for non fiction so if you don t have this same interest I m not sure I could recommend it It was very well researched, well thought out, well presented, and raised some very interesting questions. Philip J Deloria underscores how American nationalist identity draws from American Indian identity by means of appropriation without acknowledging cultural and actual genocide of indigenous populations Deloria s Playing Indian is important scholarship in understanding Americanness from a historical perspective.Put differently, Deloria demonstrates how people like to dress up in feathers and moccasins without having a clue about the historic meanings behind the garb. Fascinating exploration of the ways that white and, in rare cases, black and Latinx Americans have appropriated Native American culture Deloria argues that Americans use Native American imagery to form a sense of national identity He uses case studies to demonstrate some of the identities that have been proposed over the last 250 years Dressing up as Indians and creating a fictional history of the Indian King Tammany, eighteenth century colonists justified their separation from Britain and the use of paramilitary misrule to achieve freedom Rising nativism in the early republic saw Tammany become simply a mascot, not a role model, as white Americans upheld Christopher Columbus as their spiritual ancestor and began to force eastern Native Americans from their homes White scholars and hobbyists thought Native Americans were doomed to die out, so a wave of secret societies such as the Improved Order of Red Men and Lewis Henry Morgan s Grand Order of the Iroquois sought to preserve Native culture In practice, the antics of these secret societies were not so different from the rituals that Tammany societies invented decades earlier Politically savvy Native Americans realized that they could manipulate the paternalistic attitude of these societies to their benefit Iroquois youth Ely S Parker got Morgan to intervene on behalf of the Seneca in their struggle to keep their land At the turn of the twentieth century, competing visions presented Native Americans as an alternative to modern life or as a hopeless relic Several Native American scholars notably Ella Deloria, Arthur C Parker, and Charles Eastman played up the anti modern interpretation, so that Native Americans seemed to possess wisdom that modern Americans had lost By playing into white fantasies of Native decline, these Native scholars sought to earn white respect In the 1920s 30s, white Americans formed hobbyist clubs, recreating Native American artwork and clothes some black and Puerto Rican Americans joined these groups in the 1960s Deloria describes two separate strains of white suburbians who embraced Native culture conservatives, who believed in a heroic, American exceptionalist past and people who, sympathizing with the Beatniks, wanted an alternative to 1950s corporate culture and Cold War liberalism Native Americans, particularly the Hopi, have repeatedly protested the hobbyists appropriation of sacred rituals, but there have been a few cases where Native Americans and white hobbyists formed communal bonds More often, the white guys playacting Indian have been ignorant to the problems of colonialism In the brilliant final chapter, Deloria describes how New Age spiritualists and counterculture adherents have tried to become Native American in their worldview Libertarians living on communes and New Left activists protesting the Vietnam War imagined Native Americans as custodians of the Earth and victims like the Vietnamese of U.S imperialism Native activists in the American Indian Movement worked with New Left activists, notably during the occupation of Alcatraz Island in 1969 71 Many New Age religious seekers pursued a vague Indianness without learning about specific Native nations or interacting with the Native people in their communities The New Agers sometimes knew less about Native practices than the hobbyists Deloria views the combinatory religious practices of the New Agers, questioning established wisdom, as a form of postmodernism One sees the limits of postmodern invention, however, when one considers that real Native people suffer discrimination and extreme poverty Their experiences exist in unresolved tension with the grab bag practices of white New Agers This unresolved tension characterizes the longstanding U.S relationship with Native America Whites want to conquer the continent, but cannot fully conceive of themselves without Native Americans Deloria s reliance on critical theory leads to sometimes opaque prose At times, his descriptions of power relations are hard to follow He could have done to link the secret societies and hobbyists, which strike me as pretty similar in their behavior and assumption that Natives are dying out Deloria could have done to explain the ideologies of conservative versus Beat hobbyists, and he could have done to explicitly link 1970s communes to libertarianism Still, there s a lot of good material here, and much to reflect on.